# Vernier scale examples

There are three classifications based on how to read the caliper: 1 Vernier caliper, 2 Dial caliper, and 3 Digital caliper. The first one uses a vernier scalewhile the second one uses a dial gaugewhile the third one uses electronic components. Each of them looks different and has a different working mechanism. Reading a caliper is not rocket science, but not as easy as reading a ruler.

There is a little bit you need to know first. Some of them, vernier and dial caliper, have the main and the second scale. You will add those two reading to get the measurement result. On the other hand, a digital caliper needs no adding. You just read the reading on the LCD screen. A vernier caliper is the most time-consuming caliper. You will potentially experience a human error while using it.

Therefore, you need to be familiar to use it. In this practice, as an example, we are going to measure the outside diameter of a nail body.

The first step of the measurement starts from the main scale. From the video above, the main scale provides graduations in metric mm and imperial inch. To read the reading on the main scale, quantify how many divisions that are passed by the mark O of the vernier scale over the main scale. On the picture, we can easily see there are 3 divisions on the metric vernier scale and 2 divisions on the imperial vernier scale. The second step is the vernier scale.

The same with the main scale, it provides graduations in metric and imperial. One division of the metric scale will be multiplied by 0. Need to know that there are actually 10 divisions on the metric vernier.

The shorter line divides into two half of a division 0. On the other hand, there are 8 divisions on the imperial vernier. Need to remember, it is a rule when no one that lines up except the 0 and 8, it will be multiplied by 0.Question 1.

Diameter of a steel ball is measured using a vernier callipers which has divisions of 0. Three such measurements for a ball are given as : If the zero error is — 0. Question 2. The diameter of a cylinder is measured using a Vernier callipers with no zero error. It is found that the zero of the Vernier scale lies between 5. The Vernier scale has 50 divisions equivalent to 2. The 24th division of the Vernier scale exactly coincides with one of the main scale divisions. The diameter of the cylinder is: 1 5.

Question 3. There are two Vernier calipers both of which have 1 cm divided into 10 equal divisions on the main scale. The Vernier scale of one of the calipers C1 has 10 equal divisions that correspond to 9 main scale divisions. The Vernier scale of the other caliper C2 has 10 equal divisions that correspond to 11 main scale divisions.

The readings of the two calipers are shown in the figure. The measured values in cm by calipers C1 and C2, respectively, are: 1 2. If we apply these formula on first vernier caliper then we will get the same result, but if we apply these formula on the second vernier caliper then we will get negative least count 0. Question 4. The main scale of a vernier callipers is calibrated in mm and 19 divisions of main scale are equal in length to 20 divisions of vernier scale.

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In measuring the diameter of a cylinder by this instrument, the main scale reads 35 divisions and 4th division of vernier scale coinsides with a main scale division. Find: i. Least count ii. Radius of cylinder.

Solution — i. Question 5. In an experiment the angles are required to be measured using an instrument. Question 6.The vernier scale is a technological device that increases the sensitivity of a scale to subdivide the lower division of it. In this simulator the vernier scale rectangle below the scale has eight spaces between the vertical lines.

Scroll down the page to interact with the simulator or vernier scale. I suggest that before proceeding, you familiarize yourself with the concepts treated in Virtual vernier scale — simulator and practice of reading and interpretation in millimeter — tenth resolution one tenth of millimeter — 0. The vernier scaler has eight divisions. The mark of the vernier which align with a mark of main scale indicate the sub division of the measure -figure 3.

The action taken on the vernier must be added as the main scale marks left of zero 0 of vernier -figure 3. Reading is very simple -figure 3 Note that the zero 0 of the vernier coincides with one of the marks of the main scale reading is direct.

If the zero of the vernier does not coincide with a mark of main scale is between twothe main scale: some inches to the entire value of the fraction on the left of the zero mark of the vernier to the value of the vernier marks are aligned phew.

In the example of figure 3. Scroll down and practice these skills in the simulator. After interacting with the simulator, solve this: list of reading and interpretation of vernier caliper in fractional inch exercises.

Destaque Destaque — Home Metrology Simulator. Eduardo J. Tags: fractional inche inch vernier.The precision of length measurements may be increased by using a device that uses a sliding vernier scale.

Two such instruments that are based on a vernier scale which you will use in the laboratory to measure lengths of objects are the vernier callipers and the micrometer screw gauge.

These instruments have a main scale in millimetres and a sliding or rotating vernier scale. In figure 1 below, the vernier scale below is divided into 10 equal divisions and thus the least count of the instrument is 0. Both the main scale and the vernier scale readings are taken into account while making a measurement. The main scale reading is the first reading on the main scale immediately to the left of the zero of the vernier scale 3 mmwhile the vernier scale reading is the mark on the vernier scale which exactly coincides with a mark on the main scale 0.

The reading is therefore 3. This Java applet will help you to understand how to read a vernier scale. The vernier calipers found in the laboratory incorporates a main scale and a sliding vernier scale which allows readings to the nearest 0. This instrument may be used to measure outer dimensions of objects using the main jawsinside dimensions using the smaller jaws at the topand depths using the stem.

To measure outer dimensions of an object, the object is placed between the jaws, which are then moved together until they secure the object. The screw clamp may then be tightened to ensure that the reading does not change while the scale is being read.

Watch this short movie to see how to do this. Here is a nice vernier calipers applet. The first significant figures are read immediately to the left of the zero of the vernier scale and the remaining digits are taken as the vernier scale division that lines up with any main scale division.

Some examples: Note that the important region of the vernier scale is enlarged in the upper right hand corner of each figure. In figure 4 above, the first significant figures are taken as the main scale reading to the left of the vernier zero, i. The remaining two digits are taken from the vernier scale reading that lines up with any main scale reading, i. Thus the reading is In figure 5 above, the first significant figures are taken as the main scale reading to the left of the vernier zero, i.

Note that the zero must be included because the scale can differentiate between fiftieths of a millimetre. Therefore the reading is In figure 6 the zero and the ten on the vernier scale both line up with main scale readings, therefore the reading is The micrometer screw gauge is used to measure even smaller dimensions than the vernier callipers. The micrometer screw gauge also uses an auxiliary scale measuring hundredths of a millimetre which is marked on a rotary thimble.

Basically it is a screw with an accurately constant pitch the amount by which the thimble moves forward or backward for one complete revolution. The micrometers in our laboratory have a pitch of 0. The rotating thimble is subdivided into 50 equal divisions. The thimble passes through a frame that carries a millimetre scale graduated to 0. The jaws can be adjusted by rotating the thimble using the small ratchet knob. This includes a friction clutch which prevents too much tension being applied.

The thimble must be rotated through two revolutions to open the jaws by 1 mm. Here is a useful applet to learn how to use the micrometer screwgauge. In order to measure an object, the object is placed between the jaws and the thimble is rotated using the ratchet until the object is secured.

Note that the ratchet knob must be used to secure the object firmly between the jaws, otherwise the instrument could be damaged or give an inconsistent reading. The manufacturer recommends 3 clicks of the ratchet before taking the reading.

The lock may be used to ensure that the thimble does not rotate while you take the reading. The first significant figure is taken from the last graduation showing on the sleeve directly to the left of the revolving thimble.

Note that an additional half scale division 0. The remaining two significant figures hundredths of a millimetre are taken directly from the thimble opposite the main scale.JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. The vernier scale was invented by French mathematician Pierre Vernier in as an upgrade on Pedro Nunes' measurement system for precision astrolobes.

With a main scale and a sliding secondary scale, a vernier is used for making precise measurements. The sliding vernier scale is marked with divisions slightly smaller than the divisions of the main scale. For example, a vernier scale could have 11 markings for every 10 on the main scale.

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That's 10 divisions on the vernier scale for every 9 on the main scale. In this case, the 0 line and the 10 line on the vernier could pair up with marks on the main scale, but none of the other divisions on the vernier would match a line of the main scale.

For example, the 0 and 10 lines of the vernier scale could pair up with the 0 and 9 lines on the main scale. The first image at the right shows a linear scale. The 0 on the vernier scale lines up with the 4 on the main scale. So, the measurement shown is 4. The second image left shows a new reading. Since the 0 mark on the sliding scale is past the 4.

To read the vernier scale, look for a mark on the vernier scale that lines up best with a mark on the main scale. In this case, the 9 mark lines up best. So, the measurement is 4. At WPI you can find vernier scales on microscopesstereotaxic frames and micromanipulators. On some of these instruments, the vernier will likely look like the circular one on the M micromanipulator that is shown below. On this micromanipulator, the linear scale is read first.

Whole numbers are shown on the top of the linear scale and half numbers are shown on the bottom.Mini Physics. A quick guide on how to read a vernier caliper. A vernier caliper outputs measurement readings in centimetres cm and it is precise up to 2 decimal places E.

Note: The measurement-reading technique described in this post will be similar for vernier calipers which output measurement readings in inches. Sponsored Link: Want an easy-to-read digital vernier caliper? Get it from Amazon by clicking this link. In order to read the measurement readings from vernier caliper properly, you need to remember two things before we start.

For example, if a vernier caliper output a measurement reading of 2. We will just use a two steps method to get the measurement reading from this:. In order to obtain the final measurement readingwe will add the main scale reading and vernier scale reading together. This will give 2. Now, we shall try with zero error.

### Using the Vernier Calipers & Micrometer Screw Gauge

If you are not familiar on how to handle zero error for vernier calipers, I suggest that you read up on Measurement of Length. The reading on the top is the measurement obtained and the reading at the bottom is the zero error. Find the actual measurement. Meaning: get rid of the zero error in the measurement or take into account the zero error. If you do not understand the subtraction of the negative zero error from the measurement, please read on. Since the zero error is Hence, you will have to ADD 0.

This means that once you have determined the nature of the zero error positive or negativeyou can just subtract the zero error and be sure that your final answer is correct. Note: I hope that I did not confuse you.

Drop a comment below if you encounter any difficulties. The main scale reading is obtained from the reading on the main scale that is at the immediate left of the zero on the vernier scale. Where on the vernier calipers would you read to obtain the vernier scale reading?

After getting the vernier scale reading can I simply devide by to get the actual reading. And if so, why is chosen for this devision? Please can anyone help me out here? Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. Mini Physics Administrator of Mini Physics.

Still confused may be a demonstration lecture will help otherwise Reply.Suppose you are measuring with a caliper, then you suddenly get quite confused.

How that could be? Vernier scale is the secondary scale that is set parallelly next to the main scale to provide higher accuracy. The way it acts is by dividing each division on the main scale into some more smaller divisions.

It is used in both calipers and micrometers. While in micrometers, there are only found in some mechanical micrometers to amplify the reading of thimble scale.

The presence of the vernier scale is a sign of improved accuracy. Hence, when you buy a new micrometera vernier scale should be one thing you take into account. The vernier is also used in other instruments such as theodolites and sextants. However, people today easily find vernier scale on vernier calipers. The vernier applies both in a linear and circular scale model. He is Pierre Verniera French mathematician and inventor, who found the vernier scale in Thanks, bud! The mechanism of its working is brilliant.

In the end, you will realize as if it has an amplification effect.

This mechanism lets you easily solve the problem of measuring where a 1 mm is too narrow to print the friction marks. When it measures nothing, mark 0 on both the vernier and the main scale are aligned perfectly. Look at the scale carefully, the mark 0 on the vernier scale moves very slightly toward one division on the main scale. On the other hand, the aligned marks move alternately to the next right direction.

Each time the aligned mark adjust to the right, it is equal to the resolution or the least count of the vernier scale.

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What is the least count? Least count or also refer to resolution is the smallest increment that a particular scale provides. The least count calculation is obtained by simply subtracting one division of the main scale by one division of the vernier scale.

For example, one division on the main scale values 1mm and one division on the vernier scale is 0. Similarly, 10mm is the interval of one division of vernier, 9mm is the interval of one division of the main scale, then the least count is 1mm.

We are going to make a vernier scale that has.

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However, there are only 10 divisions available on the main scale and the interval of those 10 divisions is 1 cm. Suppose we want the vernier has 10 divisions as well. How long the vernier interval of those 10 divisions must be? As the answer shows, we need to a vernier scale that has.